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November 23, 2013

COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) VERSUS INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY ACQUISITION (IVA) ON STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

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COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) VERSUS INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY ACQUISITION (IVA) ON STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY MASTERY

Rosdiana

Lecturer of English Subject for Informatics Program, Indraprasta PGRI Univeristy

ros_unindra@yahoo.co.id

Abstrak. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji perbandingan antara dua metode yang digunakan untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap penguasaan kosakata bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan metode eksperimen dan diuji dengan menggunakan uji t terhadap dua kelas yang menggunakan dua metode berbeda. Subjek penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa tahun pertama program studi Teknik Informatika Universitas Indraprasta PGRI.  


INTRODUCTION

 Background of the Study

In general, education system should be recommended with improving the achievement of the students at the end of teaching process. The writer realizes, that to wide to tell the detail aspects of education, namely the strategy to transfer the knowledge to the students. To do that, of course need of method, and approach, that described the nature of the subject matter to be taught and ‘a technique’ as the way to implement the material in classroom, and the material that will be transferred to the learners.

Learners as part of learning process must understand what they have to learn. In English learning, learners learn a new language beside their mother tongue (L1) then they try to acquire second or foreign language (L2).  In learning English as foreign language, like we do in Indonesia, there are many method that we can use, instead of there is no one method is better than other method. But we can choose one method that is suitable for us and for the learning environment.

One of those methods is Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). CALL itself originates from CAI (Computer-Accelerated Instruction), a term that was first viewed as an aid for teachers. In this method, the learners will learn English that is provided by Multimedia aids. Now days, as the fast development of the technology, computer becomes the ‘usual’ things for everybody. We familiar with the computer, start form the early step learning until the advanced learners.

Besides using the new method, the writer usually do with regular method in classroom. The Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition (IVA) is the regular one. The writer want to compare which one is better and students will have better vocabulary mastery. Because of that curious thinking, the writer would like to compare that method on vocabulary mastery. 

The writer thinks computer as the part of modern technology become phenomenon of human beings now. Almost all aspects in human life cannot be separated with computer literate. Multimedia computing, the Internet, and the World Wide Web have provided an incredible boost to Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) applications. In teaching and learning process also mostly use computer to make it easier. Both students and teachers prefer to use computer as their teaching – learning aids. It is one of reason why the writer chooses this topic.  The writer itself now is teaching at Informatics Technique programs that most of the teaching aids using multimedia. Based on the available facilities, the writer can do the teaching process using CALL method and compare it into IVA.

There is also the question in writer’s mind, why should engineers and scientists study technical writing or speaking? Their primary training and interest lie in technical areas’ most science and engineering students successfully pursue their technical subject without extra writing courses; and practicing engineers and scientists in government and industry work on technical projects. It might seem, then, that writing and communication are superfluous to a technical education.  So, they really need many vocabularies to fulfill the quality. 

As part of teaching English at non – English program, the focus of teaching aims is enhanced students’ vocabulary. And majority of the students are lack of vocabulary, so the writer wants to explore the students’ vocabulary mastery and what method is suitable for enhancing it. As we know, in science and technology, the content language for informatics program is English. With this condition, the writer thought that the students who takes informatics program must be comprehend English vocabulary as maximum as they can.

The writer tries to solve that problem which is the lack of students’ vocabularies in that field. With choosing the appropriate method for improving their vocabulary, the writer hopes they will have impressing improvement. As we know, the Informatics Technique mostly using multimedia and computer as their main tool in daily learning. Based on the explanation above, the writer thinks to compare of using CALL and IVA method to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery for informatics technique program.

 

Identification of the Problem

Based on the background of the study, the writer notifies there are some identification of problem from the comparative study between using CALL and IVA on students’ vocabulary mastery at here the following: (1)Vocabulary tends to be a difficult part in learning English. (2) Students are difficult to remember the vocabulary at informatics program. (3) Hard to find appropriate methods that can be used for vocabulary mastery. (4) CALL is hard to implement for vocabulary mastery. (5) IVA is hard to implement for vocabulary mastery.

So, this study in intended to answer the questions of:  (1) Are there differences in vocabulary mastery between students that are taught by using CALL method from the students that are taught by using IVA method? (2)Which method is more effective for increasing students’ vocabulary mastery?

 

Objectives of the Study

Based on the research questions previously mentioned, the objectives of the study are to analyze: (1) To find the differences the students’ vocabulary mastery who are taught by using CALL and IVA method. (2) To know which method that is more effective for increasing students’ vocabulary mastery. 

Theoretical Review

  1. A.    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
  2. 1.      Theory of Computer Assisted Language Learning

The computer is an information processing device capable of storing large amounts of information for delivery in alternative highly controlled environments. The CAL program refers to the learning involving the utilization of the computer, usually by means of an interactive – computer system (hypertext/ multimedia system, tool book, and hyper card) in which students and computer can interact each other, and in which the students are given a freedom to choose any topic of information and even, to become a trouble – shooter of their own problems.(2005;21)

It means with using computer students will be more active because they are free to choose anything that they like for supporting the process of language learning. As stated also from Hilzt and Turroff (1985) and Hitlz (1994) suggest that this flexibility supports collaborative learning among students who can therefore participate at time and places of their choosing.

Hartoyo (200; 21) stated that CALL means CAL which is implemented to language. In this point, the utilization of the computer is primarily directed to make provisions to a language learning tutorial program.

Given the breadth what may go on in computer – assisted language learning (CALL), a definition of CALL that accommodates its changing nature is any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language.(Ken Beaty,2003:7)

It means that CALL method can help learners to maximize their language learning, and make the process easier. As stated also by Logan (1995) explores the importance of computer literacy when he suggest that computers represent the fifth in a series of language which humans have mastered, the previous four being speech, writing, mathematics, and science.(2003;7)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), also defined as “the search for and study applications of the computer in language teaching and learning” (Levy 1997:1), covers a broad spectrum of concerns, including the pedagogies implemented through technology and their evaluation.  It means CALL method is fit for learners in linguistics ability.

Learners fit refer to appropriate fit of CALL materials to learners’ linguistic ability level and individual characteristics. If the language of a CALL task is already known to the learner, the task presents no opportunity for development, but language that is beyond the learners’ grasp relative to their ability is equally ineffective. 

 

  1. 2.      Previous Experimental Studies of Using CALL

Some studies on the using of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) method on learning English such as some practitioners are questioning whether the term is still viable (Bax, 2003; Ken, 2006; Warschauer,1999) one issues is whether or not computers assist our instruction any more than books, pens, and libraries did in years past. Another question asks if the “computer part of the acronym eliminates the use of other digital technologies, such as DVDs and CDs, which can be utilized without a computer. And finally, in an age in which computer science has pervaded all aspects our lives, including our classroom, why single out computers as some special case, “when online communication has become a normal part of our daily life?”(Brown, 2007:199) based on that, all of them suggest us to implement the computer in our language learning and teaching.

Much of the early history of computers in language learning, in the 1980s and 1990s, was concerned with keeping abreast of technological change. Mainframe computers were at first seen as the taskmaster: a number of content courses, particularly in English grammar and computer science were provided by the PLATO system (Bitzer 1960) at many universities. Students mastered each individual topic – which consisted of presentation and practice in the form of tests- in solitary confinement in a language laboratory.

Another study was stated by Chapelle (2005), who wisely refrained from joining the alphabet soup argument, and simply accepted CALL as associated with “the broad range of activities associated with technology and language learning.”(Brown, 2007; 199) It means, the can combine both technology and language learning, so can make great synergy.

As Hartoyo stated the development of information technology (IT) has permeated the application of computers in the learning process, which is generally known as Computer Assisted Learning (CAL). Computer as medium is used for the sake of facilitating people in learning, such as learning a language. (Hartoyo, 2007;11)  In writer assumption, we may use the technology as facilitator on our teaching and learning process.

Another view comes from Ballenden (1984) who says that computer technology will increasingly penetrate all areas of life, including education.(Hartoyo, 2007;11) It is one of the proved that computer can be applied in all aspect of education, including learning language.

In computers language learning, Sokolik (2007;477)  examines the forms and functions of computer technology in second language learning. These forms and function, she contends, are separate from any particular state technology. She concludes that good teaching methodology depends more on sound pedagogy than on access to any particular form of computer technology. 

As stated by Derycke, Smith and Hemery (1995:182), “Some of the highest pedagogical objectives can only be achieved by employing group learning activities such as group problem solving games, case studies, exchanges with real experts.”

It means many materials can be taught by CALL method, as stated by Ken Beatty (2003: 11), “In the last four decades, CALL materials have gone from an emphasis on basic textual gap –filling tasks and simple programming exercises to interactive multimedia presentations with sound, animation, and full motion video.

 

  1. 3.      Advantages and disadvantages of using CALL

a.The advantages using CALL

The greatest single benefit of collaborative learning at the computer is in the way in which is serves to reveal information and ideas, not just to the learners’ collaborative partners, but to the learners themselves.

The positive impact of a CALL task refers to its effects beyond its language learning potential. Ideally, classroom language learning tasks teach more than language; they should help learners develop their meta- cognitive strategies (Oxford 1990) in a way that allows them to develop accountability for their learning in the classroom and beyond. (Chepelle, 2002:500)

As Hartoyo stated on his book Individual Differences in Computer Assisted Langauge Learning (2008; 27), CALL have some advantages, here the following:

  • As far as reading habits are concerned, CALL encourages users (students) to develop a non sequential reading habit, which it is hoped will carry over to reading tasks with traditional, printed material. (Ansel, et al 1992). It allows users to make their own decisions to develop a selective and critical reading habit which enables them to scan a large amount of information (topic) of their interest.
  • CALL offers freedom for users to choose any topic of information available within the package. The table of contents denotes all topics available which can be selected by simply clicking on the box labeled for a particular topic.
  •  Since the CALL tutorial package can also be used in pairs, it spurs the users (student) to be able to collaborate very usefully in problem solving which in itself is considered to be a good skill acquire, as it can be implemented in a wide range of different contexts.
  • CALL’s flexibility of time allows the students to determine what particular topics and how long they want to learn. Hence, students who miss the class because of some reasons, for instance illness, still have an opportunity to learn the particular topic taught in the classroom as far as the topic is available on CALL program. CALL provides an individual interactive learning program, so both the ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ learners can take benefit from it.

 

There are many benefits to collaboration the above mentioned socialization of learners. However, a concern of CALL is how collaboration promotes language learning through exposure to new language and opportunities to use it through negotiation of meaning with peers.

 

  1. b.         Disadvantages of using CALL

Beside the advantages of using Computer Assisted language Learning. there are also the disadvantages of using this method. According to Hartoyo (2008;32), there are several of disadvantage of using CALL:

  • Compared with ‘traditional’ books, the electronic book – the CAL program – is considered to be much less handy. It is much different from the traditional books that are small enough to be carried around and studied wherever and whenever students wish, on a train, at home, in the middle of the night, or n a dentist’s waiting room. (Ansel, et al, 1992). Moreover, at the present time most students do not possess their own computers at home. Hence, they usually can only used computer available in their schools in which the opening hours very restricted.
  • In general, reading a text, especially the long ones, on the screen is slower, more difficult and tiring. Gould and Grischowsky (1984) have shown that people read 20-30% slower from low resolution screens. It may, sometimes, account for the eye irritation and pain. Therefore, those who are  concerned with the design and programming CAL should take into account the use of high resolution screens, and should refer to the Display Screen Equipment (DSE) regulation (e.g. in the U.K: The Health and Safety (DSE) Rehulation 1992)

 

  1. 4.      Application of CALL in EFL

When implementing CALL as a method, there are many supporting media that can help it as great alternative method on language learning. As the name of Computer Assisted Language Learning, computer as the main tool, according to Ken Beatty on Teaching and Researching Computer – assisted Language Learning, (2003;52), there are eight applications of CALL, here the following:

  1. Word processing

Word processing is the poor cousin of CALL. Most computers are now sold with some version of word processing already installed and such programs are widely used in the composition process. Within such word – processing packages, spelling and grammar checkers are standard tools.

  1. Games

Most educational games or games used for pedagogical purposes make use of a form of subversive teaching; learners are unaware of the objectives, or rather, do not share the same objectives as the teacher. Instead, learning takes place as an activity peripheral to play. .

  1. Literature

One of the ways in which learners are presented with opportunities to acquire language is through activities peripheral to the study of literature and other disciplines. A work of literature is not a simulation, but it has a high degree of fidelity, or authenticity, in that the learning materials are both extensive and taken from real – word sources. Literature forms the basis of many CALL programs.

  1. Corpus Linguistics

Corpus linguistics is an important area in its own right within applied linguistics, but it is also a useful tool for the teaching and learning of language at the computer. This section outlines some of the key aspects of corpus linguistics and concordance before going on to explain their application to CALL.

  1. Computer – mediated communication

CMC refers to a situation in which computer – based discussion may take place but without necessarily involving learning. Of course, opportunities for learning are inherently present, especially in situations in which learners need to engage in negotiation of meaning with native speakers of the target language or even with peers of non- native proficiency.

 

  1. B.     Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition (IVA)
    1. 1.      Theory of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition (IVA)

IVA(Huckin and Coady,1999;185) is the learning of new words as a by-product of a meaning-focused communicative activity, such as reading, listening, and interaction. It occurs through “multiple exposures to a word in different contexts.

 IVA is first appeared in the study of children’s acquisition of first language. The term incidental acquisition was first used in the field of psychology, but Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition was proposed by Nagy, Herman and Anderson in 1985 based on the research of how children acquire their mother tongue. (Xu, 2010;519)

The concept of incidental vocabulary acquisition (IVA) (2009) was first proposed by Nagy, Herman &Anderson (1995) and later was developed by Nation(1990), Laufer (1998, 2001) and Hulstijn (2001). Contrary to intentional learning featured by rote memorization and repetitious practice incidental acquisition means that words are learnt while doing other tasks like reading listening or writing. Since its inception ,some important relevant studies (Pigada &Schmitt 2006 ;Krashen 1989 ;Laufer 1998) have been conducted in the western world.

Based on the expert statement above, the writer can conclude that explicit vocabulary teaching is necessary for teaching the core vocabulary, particularly for the learning of basic lexical and semantic knowledge. Incidental vocabulary acquisition should be encouraged for further lexical and semantic development of the words learned through explicit instruction and for learning additional vocabulary.

 

  1. 2.      Previous Experimental Studies of Using IVA

 The earliest experiment(Xu, 2010;117) on incidental vocabulary acquisition was done by Gibson (1985). He designed a strip story experiment to study learning vocabulary through speaking, but he didn’t give a definition of IVA. Nagy, Herman & Anderson (1985) bring forward the concept of incidental vocabulary acquisition on the basis of studying how school children acquire their mother tongue. They believe that incidental learning from context accounts for a substantial proportion of the vocabulary growth that occurs during the school years. Long (1981) and Krashen (1985) propose Interactive Hypothesis and Input Hypothesis respectively, but they didn’t define incidental vocabulary acquisition. Krashen (1989) argues that language learners could acquire vocabulary and spelling most efficiently by receiving comprehensible input while reading. He intends to use his Input Hypothesis to explain such an unconscious learning process, and describes this process as similar to incidental acquisition.

Gass (1988: 198-217) observed that there were not agreed-upon definitions of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. It is of special importance to have a clear understanding of the term Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition.

Another study (Xu, 2010;117) stated on Psychological studies about implicit/explicit learning in language acquisition have typically been concerned with the acquisition of grammatical structures. Of all vocabulary learning strategies commonly recognized today in both L1 (mother language) and L2 reading, word lists, guessing from context and dictionary use are most common and still broadly employed at present ( Carrell 1984; Aebersold &Field 1997).

Based on the previous studies of IVA, the writer thinks that IVA can be one of method to teach vocabulary to gain the vocabulary mastery for informatics programs. 

 

  1. 3.      The Advantages and Disadvantages of  IVA

When we implement some methods to teach vocabulary, such as IVA, there are several advantages and disadvantages, here the following:

The advantages and disadvantages of IVA

 

4. Application of IVA in EFL

In EFL setting, many methods and technique use for gain the target language. When the teachers or lecturers implement some method in the classroom, they must get target that they want to get. In EFL setting, the practicality has to be the first number in their thought. Such as the IVA method, the lecturers do not need the specific tools like an advanced technology. 

We acquire most of our vocabulary in foreign language incidentally, especially through reading. That is one kind of IVA, which is viewed as a by- product of another activity, such as reading and communication. In the light of the information processing model, IVA is conducive to reading in that the use of IVA reduces the workload in the limited space of our short- term memory where the linguistic input is processed, consequently accelerating the reading speed and facilitating the proceduralization of the information process. On the other hand, the speeding up of reading with the aid of IVA facilitates vocabulary learning.

 

  1. C.    Vocabulary
    1. 1.      The Teaching of Vocabulary in EFL context

When we introduce new vocabulary, there is always a chance, of course, that is not new to some of the students in the class. (Harmer, 2007;229) According to David Wilkins on Scott Thornbury (2002; 13) stated that “without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” This is how the linguist David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary learning.(2001;285) 

For older people, improving vocabulary is easier, because most would have already gone through a formal education. For them, it is a matter of reading more, and learning new words. They should also learn how to use these new words in the proper way. For children, learning how to spell is difficult if they do not already have a mastery of phonics.  To teach vocabulary properly, we must have a foundation. The most basic foundation for vocabulary can be called a root.

Community college developmental education students face numerous obstacles as they proceed through their years of higher education. One specific area of need is students’ inadequate vocabularies. Advanced communication skills are an integral part of higher education, so students may be at an academic disadvantage if these skills are not well-developed Developmental students’ weak vocabularies compound the other challenges they face.

According to Jeanetter S. Decarrico (2010;84), vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language is first, second or foreign. It means, for learning a language, a person must acquire the vocabulary first, and move to other steps and there is effective vocabulary growth.

When learning new words, the lack of schema, often due to be limited reading, proves a common problem for developmental education students (Willingham & Price, 2008; Willingham, 2009).

Another terminology is also stated by Hornby (2003;9), stating that Vocabulary is (1) Total number of words which with rules for combining item make up language; (2) Word known to a used by a person, a trade profession, etc; (3) Book containing a list of words, usually with definition and translation. It means that vocabulary kinds of process that someone can reach in his or her learning process.

Most articles that discuss vocabulary expansion include the idea of knowing a word (Stahl & Nagy, 2006; Wallace, 2007). Wallace (2007) specifically stated that knowing a word, or word depth, requires the understanding of a word’s definition as well as the varied usages of the word. Yet, many times vocabulary instruction primarily focuses on vocabulary breadth, or how many words a student knows. Instruction should focus on both aspects.

Based on all explanation above, the writer can conclude that vocabulary mastery is one important part in learning a language. With knowing vocabulary as basic knowledge, the learners can improve their ability in other part of language skills.  

 

  1. 2.      Technique in Teaching Vocabulary

Vocabulary (Ghazal; 2010; 84) is central to language and is of great significance to language learners.  Words are the building blocks of a language since they label objects, actions, ideas without which people cannot convey the intended meaning. The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. Accordingly, numerous types of approaches, techniques, exercise and practice have been introduced into the field to teach vocabulary (Hatch & Brown, 1995).

 It has been suggested that teaching vocabulary should not only consist of teaching specific words but also aim at equipping learners with strategies necessary to expand their vocabulary knowledge. Teaching vocabulary is very important element of teaching English, because learners, knowing more and more words, hope they can better communicate with other. It is the most important thing in teaching foreign language.  We can use different and interesting technique in teaching vocabulary.

 

  1. a.      Using Technology

Technology is one of the media that is suggested in learning language. When a person mentions technology in the language classroom, the first impulse is to think the computer technology, in because computers have so pervaded our daily home and workplace contexts. 

The recent advances in educational applications of computer hardware and software have provided a rapidly growing – and sometimes bewildering – set of resources for language classrooms. The practical applications of Computer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are growing at such a rapid pace that it is almost impossible for a classroom teacher to keep up with the field.

Similarly, in an article exploring multimedia annotations and vocabulary acquisition, Chun and Plass (1996a) present the positive results of three studies with students in their second year of German who used Cyberbuch, a multimedia application offering various types of annotations (picture, text, video). The goals of this study included the exploration of incidental vocabulary learning, and the examination of the effectiveness of multimedia annotations on vocabulary acquisition. The results of this case study supported previous research on the effectiveness of different types of annotations, according to which visual imagery was found to help in learning and retention of new foreign words.

 

  1. b.      Non – technology

In the other hand of teaching vocabulary, the conventional technique still become the favorite one. The teachers and lecturers are still using this technique with sensing of the advanced technology.  Many teachers or lecturers prefer teach their learners using this kind of technique. 

As stated by Jose A. Bowen, the dean of the Meadows School of the Arts at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, has begun to promote “teaching naked”—or teaching without technology in the classroom. (2009) Bowen’s main beef with technology seems to be specifically with PowerPoint, which he claims many teachers use as a crutch, rather than an effective teaching tool. Class time should be reserved for group discussion, says Bowen, not for displaying information that could be downloaded later, such as a PowerPoint presentation or lecture. 

Those who are made most uncomfortable by Bowen’s teaching style are the students. They’ve become used to the passive lecture method of teaching and aren’t used to actively participating during a 50-minute class, says the article, although Bowen claims that once students see the effects of group discussions vs. lectures, they become less bored and more engaged.

 

  1. 3.      The Importance of Vocabulary for students of EFL

The role that vocabulary knowledge plays in second and foreign languages acquisition has long been neglected. However, vocabulary is currently receiving increased emphasis in the language teaching curriculum. This is due to several reasons, such as the influence of comprehension-based approaches to language development, the research efforts of applied linguists, and the exciting possibilities opened-up by the development of computer-based language corpora (Nunan, 1999: 103). Moreover, it is now increasingly pointed out that there is a reciprocal, well-documented relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. As Tozcu and Coady (2004: 473) point out, learning vocabulary is an important aspect of L2/FL acquisition and academic achievement and is vital to reading comprehension and proficiency, to which it is closely linked.

 Vocabulary learning is essential for the learning of a foreign language, which constitutes a great challenge and enormous task for both second language learners and teachers. As Wilkins (1974) puts that without grammar very little can be conveyed, but without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. According to Hatch (1983), “basic communicative competence is largely concerned with the strategies the learners use to solicit the vocabulary they need in order to get meaning across”.

It goes without saying that anyone who wishes to be an effective communicator of scientific of technical information must posses a good vocabulary. The best way to increase one’s vocabulary, of course, is to read and hear English as much as possible. The more you read and listen, the more exposure you’ll have to new words. Given plenty of leisure time, of course, this would be no problem. (Hunckin, 1983: 49) He said if we were like most people, however we didn’t have plenty of leisure time, and so we needed to optimize the use of our time. So we need to build our vocabulary in the most efficient way possible.

Several researchers also have used relative frequency or range as a way of distinguishing vocabulary. Bečka (1972) distinguished there types of words in specialized discourse: grammatical words and two kinds of lexical words – on – terminological words and terminological words. (Long and jack, 2001: 200)

 

  1. D.    Teaching Vocabulary through CALL

With the rapid development of Internet and CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning, the use of electronic dictionaries (e- dictionaries) and texts becomes increasingly popular in China for their ease and speed in use. Nowadays the e- dictionaries (online dictionaries, CD-ROM dictionaries and PC dictionaries) have become handy learning – aids for students to learn English and useful teaching – aids for English teachers to prepare their teaching note. The PC dictionaries (dictionaries installed in the computer) Moreover, changing fro m print to electronic texts will surely influence students’ reading behavior, their reading comprehension and vocabulary learning.

Some research assessed the general value of ESL / EFL software programs for improving reading comprehension and vocabulary (AlKahtani, 1999; Busch, 2003; McGlinn and Parrish, 2002). More recent studies examined the effect of extended use of computers on reading achievement, the effect of computer instruction on reading rate and reading comprehension; the effects of multimedia software on reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition, as well as the relationship between vocabulary development and reading comprehension (Singhal, 1998: 2-6). Most research on vocabulary acquisition and CALL has focused on the effects of multimedia glosses, and the same is true for reading comprehension, since vocabulary and reading are closely and reciprocally related. This reciprocal relationship also accounts for the fact that many research studies on vocabulary development and CALL also examine reading comprehension, and vice versa.

In other study that ever implement CALL method, According to Ichwan Suyudi on his paper with title “Pengembangan Computer – Assisted Language Learning dalam Pembelajaran Kosakata kelas 1 di SD Putra Bangsa Depok”, that is paper with Bahasa from Gunadarma University.(Suyudi,2007) This paper presented on seminar with name Proceeding PESAT (Psikologi, Ekonomi, Sastra, Aristek dan Sipil) on August 21-22, 2007.  The writer can review from the paper that this method has great impact in learning vocabulary for the students. As stated by the writer on his abstracts, “Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa nilai siswa yang belajar bahasa Inggris berbasis CALL lebih baik dibandingkan dengan siswa yang belajar tanpa menggunakan metode CALL.”   It means that learning vocabulary using CALL method is better than another method. 

The vocabulary is just a part of some aspects of learning language that can use this method. The effectiveness of this CALL method needs more development with improving another program to teach those language aspects.

Researchers have examined how computers enhance the instructed acquisition, e.g., pronunciation (Ezkenazi 1999), grammatical structures (Collentine 2000) and lexical items (Laufer and Hill 2000). Broader skill areas are also receiving attention; e.g. Chun and Plass (1997) examine reading comprehension skill, Negretti (1999) uses conversational analysis in web- based activities, and Sulvian (1998) explores the connections among reading, writing, speaking and critical thinking.(Nunan, 2001: 108)  It is one of prove that computers, in this case CALL method can support many aspects of language learning, including vocabulary. 

Evidence for learners should indicate that CALL is the appropriate level or difficulty and type of pedagogy, given the learners’ characteristics. Process data that indicate good learner overlap those used to infer language learning potential because an activity can hold potential for language learning only if it is at the appropriate level for the learner. For example, Park’s study of the use of ESL multimedia is through think aloud data identified revealing thoughts such as “I think I have a lot of vocabulary that I don’t know” (1994: 147).  This statement, indicating a need for task – related vocabulary, was made while the learner was clicking on one of the words in the input.  

Based on the statement above, the writer assumes that vocabulary can be increased by CALL method. Because of the CALL method is another way to teach vocabulary, using some tools, such as computer and multimedia. They will not make students get bored when they learn it.

 

  1. E.     Teaching Vocabulary through IVA

Schmidt (1994) stated that the vocabulary learning refers to the learning without intent to learn, or as the learning of one thing, e.g. vocabulary, when the learner’s primary objective is to do something else, to communicate.

Nation (1998) points out that incidental vocabulary acquisition means learners could acquire vocabulary by paying their attention to other things, especially information carried on by the language, and not to learn vocabulary technically.

It means that IVA can be effective method to teach vocabulary for learners. Because of the learners will be treated as the curios person who is really want to know the vocabulary without their realizing that they learn it.

Joe (1998) also mentions that incidental/indirect vocabulary acquisition indicates that learners paid their attention to the comprehension of the context, not the vocabulary in the course of their learning. And it is very effective to acquire vocabulary.

Another stated by Hucky and Coady (1999) define incidental vocabulary acquisition as a learning process of guessing words in reading, and it is a by-product of cognitive activity. 

Based on the statement above, the writer can conclude that by using IVA, the teachers or lecturers may increase their students’ vocabulary mastery effectively because the learners will not notice that they have learned it. Because of they do the learning as their habit and part of their daily learning activities, such as by using reading passage.

 

RESEARCH METHOLOGY

This study conducted quantitatively by applying the comparative experiment method. According to Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen (2007:267), experimental research is one of the most powerful research methodologies that researchers can use. Of the many types of research that might be used, the experiment is the best way to establish cause and effects relationship among variables.

In this research, the writer tried to use a new method which is Computer Assisted Language Learning for knowing students’ vocabulary mastery and compare with previous method that is usually used which is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition (IVA). The independent variable was students’ vocabulary mastery and the dependent was CALL and IVA method. As the experimental study, the writer gave a treatment with CALL method to experimental group and IVA for comparison group. The groups itself, the writer divided into two group, which were treatment or experimental group and comparison group. The treatment group was a group that was given teaching process using CALL method, and the other one which was the control group was without CALL method or with regular teaching method which was IVA. Both treatment and comparison group were given pre – test to know the basic knowledge of them. After that, the treatment group was given the new teaching method and the comparison one was not. Here the following format of research design for this experimental study:

 

Experimental group

pre – test

X

O

post – test

Comparison group

pre – test

X

O

post – test

In research design above, after both of group having the pre- test, the treatment gave the X or experiment using special method which was CALL method and the comparison group was not, but using regular that usually does in classroom which is IVA method.

RESEARCH FINDINGS

The writer presented the research findings and the discussion of the findings of data analysis. The data were analyzed using SPSS system (Statistical for Social Science) version 17.0 in order to get result of comparative study between CALL and IVA on students’ vocabulary mastery.

This part will be discussed the data analysis from this study such as the minimum score, maximum score, the mean, median, mode, variant, range, and the standard deviation by using Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 17.00, here the following data:

 

  Explanation:

A1   :

CALL method

A2   :

IVA method

B1   :

Pre – test score

B2   :

Post – test score

:

Mean score

S2    :

Variants

n   :

Total respondents

 

Test of Requirement Analysis

 

In statistic, normality and homogeneity tests are used to determine weather the data are normally distributed or not and to see weather they are homogenous. These are important because the data can only be analyzed if they are normally distributed and homogenous. Below are the test of normality and homogeneity that the writer conducted to the data of this research. 

 

  1. a.      Normality Test

The Normality test is used to find the data are from the normal distribution or not. The writer used Liliefors Test for the normality test. There were two hypotheses that were used in determining the normality of the data. To find out the data distribution are normal or not, it can be seen on table below and also the following hypotheses are:

 H0:    the data distribution is normal

 H1:    the data distribution is not normal 

The normality of data distribution

No

Kind of Test

N

L0

L– c

1

Pre – test CALL

35

0.1190

0.1478

2

Post – test CALL

35

0.0789

0.1478

3

Pre – test IVA

35

0.0835

0.1478

4

Post – test IVA

35

0.0195

0.1478

 

Based on the table above, it can be seen that the data are normal, the criteria itself Lcritic for n=35 is 0.1478, the L0 is lower than Lcritic, , the data are normal, because of the L0 is lower than Lcritic withα 0.05 or 5%. It also stated that accepting the null hypotheses (H0) and rejecting research hypotheses (H1). Since both pre – test and post test from the two groups which are experiment and comparison group are normal it means that the writer can continue to the next step of data calculation. Because of one of requirement of data analysis is already fulfill, which is the normality data test.

 

  1. b.      Homogeneity Test

The test of homogeneity used in this research is Barlett Test of the pre – test and post – test both of groups. Here the following hypotheses and criteria:

 

H0:     data is from homogeneity population

H1:      data is from homogeneity population   

 

 

 Homogeneity Test criteria

Test criteria is:

 

   Accepting H0 (rejecting H1), if

  x2value

x2critic

   Rejecting H0 (accepting H1), if

  x2value

x2critic

 

Based on the calculation the x2 value was 8.4519, and x2 critic for df = 5 and α = 5% was 11.07 it can be seen that x2 value is lower than x2 critic. Based on the hypotheses and test criteria, it can be stated that the null hypotheses (H0) is accepted and rejected the research hypotheses (H1).

 

 

Inferential Analysis

So the writer continued to the inferential analysis to answer the hypotheses about this study. To find out, the writer calculated using SPPS 17.00 to get gain form both method must be seen weather they are higher or lower than α. The assumptions are:

 

  1. a.      First Hypotheses:

1)      The difference between Pre – test and Post – test for Experimental group.

  1. If the significant value < than 0.05 it means there is significant improvement between pre – test and post test form the experimental group.
  2. If the significant value > than 0.005 it means there is no significant improvement between pre – test and post – test form the experimental group.

 

Based on the calculation the significant value for the paired sample t– test, the significant value was 0.000, it was lower than 0.005, so from both of group there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the experimental group. 

 

2)      The difference between Pre- test and Post – test for Comparison group. 

  1. If the significant value < than 0.05 it means there is significant improvement between pre – test and post test form the comparison group.
  2. If the significant value > than 0.005 it means there is no significant improvement between pre – test and post – test form the comparison group.

 

Based on the calculation (See Attachment 15) the significant value for the paired sample t– test, the significant value was 0.000, it was lower than 0.005, so from both of group there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the comparison group. 

 

3)      The difference interaction between two group

  1. If t – value < t- critic it means there is no different interaction from both of group.
  2. If t – value > t– critic, it means there is different interaction from both of group.

 

Based on the calculation, the t – test was 6.733. The statistical significance at the 0.05 level, for one – tailed test, with degree of freedom (df) 68, requires t-statistics 0.679. Since the obtain value was more than that. The writer concluded that is an unusual result, it means that there is difference interaction between two groups. It can be said that accepting the research hypotheses (H1) and rejecting null hypotheses (H0). 

b.     Second Hypotheses

        The method that is more effective

  1. CALL is more effective than IVA
  2. IVA is more effective than CALL

The gain score is used to know how effective both methods to the vocabulary mastery, to know that the writer calculated by using normalized gain (See Attachment 15), which is:

   

From the gain calculation can be interpreted by using Hake (2002), it can be seen from the table:

Table 4.8 Gain Classification (g)

G result

Interpretation

g > 0,7

High

0, 3 < g  0,7

Medium

g  0,3

Low

 

To find out the method that is more effectives, it can be seen from the mean score of the gain from both of groups. It was stated the mean score for gain of CALL was 0.5486 and for gain of IVA was 0.2029. Based on table 4.7 the gain classification, the mean score of CALL method was higher and the gain of IVA was low. So, it can be stated that rejecting the null hypotheses (H0) and accepting the research hypotheses (H1), there is different effectiveness between both methods and CALL is more effective method than IVA. This study found that among the two independent variables (CALL and IVA methods), and one dependent variable (the students’ vocabulary mastery). Computer Assisted Language Learning is the method that use computer as the main tool. The multimedia is very useful in this method. The IVA itself is the method that focus on incidental of vocabulary acquisition, the learners will incidentally learn about it.

This study conducted with 35 respondents, for each group of research. The first group was conducted by using CALL method as the experimental class and the other one was conducted by using IVA method as the comparison class. The research itself did since the starting of the class at first semester of English 1subject until mid term test. Before the treatment, the writer did the pre – test to know the basic knowledge of them and the after treatment the writer also did the post – test for both group.  In this research, the writer tried to use a new method which is Computer Assisted Language Learning for knowing students’ vocabulary mastery and compare with Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition (IVA). The independent variable was students’ vocabulary mastery and the dependent was CALL and IVA method. As the experimental study, the writer gave a treatment with CALL method to experimental group and IVA for comparison group. The groups itself, the writer divided into two group, which were treatment or experimental group and comparison group. The writer thought it was so very fair for the experiment study, as stated by Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen (2007: 267), “the experimental research is one of the most powerful research methodologies that researchers can use.”

For both of groups, the respondents was chosen by random sampling, when they entered the Informatics program, there were classed randomly based on their registration number, it was not based on their capability or their score when they got placement test. It was kind simple random sampling each respondent had same opportunity to be a sample of this study.  As stated by Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen (2007), “a simple random sample is one in which each and every number of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected.” It means the random sampling that writer took for this study was correct.

 For the experimental group, the writer found the increasing students’ vocabulary mastery before and after treatment, it was proved by the gain score between pre –test and post test. After got treatment, the students have their increasing vocabulary mastery. It means that the students get improvement after got new method in learning vocabulary. As theory stated by Ken Beatty that “Given the breadth what may go on in computer – assisted language learning (CALL), a definition of CALL that accommodates its changing nature is any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language.”(Ken Beatty, 2003;27)  It means that CALL method can help learners to maximize their language learning, and make the process easier. As stated also by Logan (1995) explores the importance of computer literacy when he suggest that computers represent the fifth in a series of language which humans have mastered, the previous for being speech, writing, mathematics, and science.

On the other hand, the comparison group that was taught by using Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition, the writer also found the increasing students’ vocabulary mastery. It can be seen by the gain score before and after the treatment. The difference and increasing score between the pre – test and post test that had been showed by the gain score proved the method also made significant impact to the students’ vocabulary mastery. As stated by Nagy, Herman & Anderson (1985) “bring forward the concept of incidental vocabulary acquisition on the basis of studying how school children acquire their mother tongue. They believe that incidental learning from context accounts for a substantial proportion of the vocabulary growth that occurs during the school years.” It means that IVA also has function to increasing students’ vocabulary mastery.

Having seen the result from both groups, the questions are which one is higher and more effective for increasing students’ vocabulary mastery? It had been answered by the gain score from both of group. Based on the calculation that writer did the CALL method had more significant difference than IVA method.  It was proved by gain value. Gain itself is the improvement score between pre- test and post – test after the treatment has happened.

It was stated that the CALL method is more effective than IVA for increasing students’ vocabulary mastery. The mean score of respondent that was taught by using CALL method is higher than IVA method. It’s clear that CALL can be stated more effective than IVA.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Conclusion

Based on the result of the data analysis, the hypotheses test, and the discussion, the following conclusions are drawn:

  1. There is difference result of students’ vocabulary mastery from the group class that was taught by using CALL and IVA method, it was proved by the gain score from both of group. There are difference score between pre – test and post – test. From both of group, the respondents had treatment from both methods.  
  2. It had showed that CALL was more successful than IVA method for informatics program at Indraprasta PGRI. Because of for informatics program students the multimedia and computer tools are very familiar for them.  This can be seen the CALL method got higher significant differences than IVA method. The significant difference was proved by the gain value. The gain itself was happened between the pre- test and post – test after they got the treatment. So, it can be said that CALL is more successful than IVA for informatics program on vocabulary mastery. 

 

Suggestion 

In relation to the conclusion above, the following suggestions are put forward:

  1. Researchers

For upcoming researchers who are interested in doing a research on similar topic, it will be better to use a larger sample so that the finding would give a better representation of the population, also, it is suggested to reassure that all the samples are familiar with term vocabulary for informatics program before administering the test in order not to get them mixed up with the common vocabulary test.  

 

  1. Students

For the informatics program students, the part of vocabulary on English subject should be clearly understood and the importance of improving their vocabulary mastery should be set as one of priorities because the ability to acquire vocabulary mastery is much needed for this English subject.

  1. Institution

 For Indraprasta PGRI University, especially Informatics Program, the CALL method should be considered to use for one of alternative method for mastering students’ vocabulary mastery. In the fact the students got better score than other method.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ash, Katie . 2009. Teaching without technology on http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/DigitalEducation/2009/07/teaching_without_technology.html

Beatty, Ken. 2003. Teaching and Researching Computer – Assisted language Learning. Longman. P.7 

Brown, H. Douglas. 2007. Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy 3rd edition. Pearson Education inc.

Chapelle Carol A.. 2002. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford University Press.

Dongzhi,Wang. Oct.2009 Vol.32 No.5 assessment on research method of incidental vocabulary acquisition. Teaching English in China —CELEA Journal(Bim onthly)

Ed. Marianne Celce- Murcia. 2001. Teaching English as a second or foreign language. 3rd edition. 2001. Heinle&Heinle Thomson Learning.

Edited Ronald Carter and David Nunan. 2001. The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge University Press.

Fraenkel, Jack R. and Norman E. Wallen. 2007. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education 6th edition.  Mc. Graw Hill.

Ghazal, Lotfi. Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts Trough Vocabulary Learning Startegies . Novitas-ROYAL, Vol.: 1(2), pp.84-91.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. The practice of English Language Teaching 4th edition. Pearson Longman. p.

Hartoyo, 2005. Individual differences in Computer Assisted Language Learning. Pelita Insani Semarang.

Huckin and Coady, 1999, p. 185 on  http://www.auburn.edu/~nunnath/engl6240/tvocabul.html

Huckin, Thomas N. 1983. English for Science and Technology; A handbook for nonnative speakers. Mac- Graw Hill co.

Ichwan S. 2007. Pengembangan CALL dalam pembelajaran kosakata kelas 1 pada SD Putra Bangsa Depok. Gunadarman University.

Long, Michael H. and Jack. C. Richards Ed. 2001. Learning Vocabulary in Another language: ISP Notion. Cambridge University Press.

Sokolik, Maggie on Computer in language Teahcing. 2001. Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Thomson Learning.

Thornbury, Scoot. 2002. How to teach vocabulary. Pearson Longman.

Xu, Xiaohui Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 519-523, July 2010 2010 Academy Publisher Manufactured in Finland.

 

November 21, 2013

THE PEER AND TEACHER FEEDBACK ON STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL

Filed under: rosdiana — rosdianasidik @ 3:10 pm

THE PEER AND TEACHER FEEDBACK ON STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL

 

Rosdiana

University of Indraprasta PGRI Jakarta

ros_unindra@yahoo.co.id

Siti Yulaikhah

SMPN 11 Depok

yulaikhahsiti@yahoo.co.id

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Background of the Study

At present, education of Indonesia uses the curriculum named ‘KTSP’ (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pelajaran) or School Based Curriculum. This curriculum interpreted as a competency based curriculum that is planned and implemented in every level of educational institutions. It is also wished-for under a basic supposition that education in Indonesia should highlight more on giving students appropriate knowledge and skills, which can assist them in facing the globalization demands, and fight against other individuals globally.  That is why competency becomes the foundation in which it is defined as life skills that cover knowledge, attitude as well as skills.

Based on The standard of graduation Competence (SKL) in Junior High School on the National Education Ministry Regulation No. 23, 2006 at May 23rd 2006 (2008;99), stated that the basic writing competences for Junior High students are the competencies in expressing meaning on written text in simple interpersonal and transactional way on recount, narrative, procedure, descriptive, and report text in their daily life contextually.

This statement emphasizes that, at the end of the learning, students are expected to master the writing competencies after experiencing the learning process, not merely memorizing some facts or information. From the genre texts taught in Junior High School, a descriptive text is the simplest text for the Junior High Students should master. By this text the students are expected to describe about someone who are very familiar with them, such as; their family members or favorite person, a place as their village, vacation place, pets, dolls, toys and flowers. In writing this simple text, students can use the picture of the object they want to describe to make them easier master this skill competence.  At SMP Negeri 11 Depok, English is taught 4 hours or 160 minutes in a week.  Based on the syllabus for this school, students get all genres continuously in the next school grade. In VII grade at 2nd semester and VIII grade at 3rd semester will get a descriptive text lesson. They get a procedure text at VII grade in 2nd semester and at IX grade 5th semester.  While at VIII grade in semester 4, students get recount text, and they will meet this text at grade IX.

From the reason above, it can be informed that the students’ capability to write for every genre should be satisfied, but in reality the students’ writing skill is still poor. They cannot make a simple paragraph that presents their idea. The paragraph is still far from the unity and good organization.

The Second barrier is about students’ mastery in grammar. They cannot use the grammar properly in writing and make many mistakes in using verbs. They also lack of mastering the target language.

Another problem is students’ lack of genre knowledge. They feel hard to make a good composition; fail to make their paragraph in good organization and content besides they feel difficult to make a cohesive and coherent sentence. Here is the example of students’ writing in bad organization.

Other problems are students’ confidence. They are afraid of trying because they don’t want to expose the mistakes they make. Students think that exposing mistake means showing their weaknesses. It will make them on the stain and feel as an object to be judged by their classmates especially by their teacher. Students are afraid of the judgment that affects their score, and grades, therefore some of them only cheat from another’s paper to avoid their mistake. These usually create a fearful learning and become a common barrier for many students when they learn English.

The barrier come from the teacher in the classroom is teachers’ strategy in learning process. Some teachers only tend to focus their teaching on grammar, vocabulary accuracy, and test taking strategies. They teach their students to finish the test, to choose the best answer in the national test and forget to teach them how to master all the skills of English. This is partly because of the tests developed mainly using recognition test types (e.g. multiple choices, cloze procedures). This situation is closely related to the National Exam or semester exam in which it becomes the only test that will determine whether the students’ will graduate from their level of school or not. The examination is only a paper and pencil test, which consists of multiple-choice items which measure the students’ mastery over English competencies after three years of the teaching learning process at school. If the students fail to achieve the standardized mark, automatically they will not graduate from school and must retake another exam. Students’ failure will be regarded as failures for teachers, and the school, in preparing the students in their learning.

Furthermore, some teachers fail to create the save learning environment. They fail to make their students feel comfortable while they are studying. They are showing their anger when their students asked them some questions, or correct them when make mistake.

Moreover, the mistakes in giving feedback on students’ paper assignment could be happened. In this case, when a teacher gives a writing task to the students, he asks them to write good sentences or paragraphs about the topic given.  All the students’ paper collected are given a score or signature, and sometimes it given written feedback such as, ‘good’, ‘very good’ or ‘enough’  from their teacher. The worse is when students’ writing assignment is only signed, and then at the end of the semester, they got the mark based on the amount of the teacher signatures. Some time, a teacher asks another students or another class to give feedback anonymously on students’ writing task by giving a sign, such as; circling the word, using another color of their handwriting pen, or revising from their friend. Actually, the students said that they do not understand why they get that score and get nothing from that process. Students only know that they make some errors on their tasks. However, they do not know why they are wrong and who they have to ask about their mistake if their paper is corrected anonymously.

A teacher sometimes used inappropriate way in giving feedback. He used very rude language, embarrassed, and humiliated in commenting students’ paper or in giving feedback to the students’ errors. It makes students lost their confident, feels uncomfortable,   and runs out from the classroom. Indeed, the barriers in writing learning process rise not only from the students, the teacher but also the way in giving feedback.

In teaching and learning process, especially in teaching writing, teachers’ role is very important. A teacher should use many strategies to increase students’ skill. One of them is the way in giving feedback. It is one of the solutions which concern to give the information about students’ performance. Feedback is very important to encourage students’ writing skill because it can improve the students’ performance, ability and motivation for future learning. Feedback on the students’ writing will make them confident to improve their writing skills by revising their writing.

The way or technique in giving feedback is based on students’ need. Some of introvert students may be enjoyed by peer feedback because they can share their idea with them. However, other students may have feeling better if their papers are edited by their teacher direct or indirectly.  Thus, there is always question of what feedback will give the best influence for the improvement on students’ writing skill in short time or long time of their life.

Based on problem above, the writers tries to answer the question of: (1)Does the peers’ feedback have effect on students’ writing skills of Descriptive Text at the VIII grade students of SMP Negeri 11 Depok? (2) Does teachers’ feedback have effect on students’ writing skills of Descriptive Text at the VIII grade students of SMP Negeri 11 Depok? (3) Are there differences between peers’ and teachers’ feedback on students’ writing skill of Descriptive text?

 

Objectives of the study

Based on the research questions previously mentioned, the objectives of the study are to identify:

  1. The effects of peers’ feedback on students’ writing skill
  2. The effects of teachers’ feedback on students’ writing skill
  3. The differences of peers’ and teachers’ feedback on students’ writing skill.

 

Theoretical Review

  1. Teachers’ feedback

The previous studies about teacher’s feedback were conducted by Radecki and Swales, Hyland, Zamel and Ferris.  Radecki and Swales (1988, p. 72), noted that the students stated a preference for their instructors to edit grammatical and other mechanical errors as they found these comments to be the most helpful. That result was different with Hyland’s study; he said that teacher comments were often criticized as inadequate, inconsistent, and often misinterpreted by student writerss. Zamel (1985), found that teacher often missed errors, corrected minor problems, unnoticed serious global issues, and sometimes gave the ambiguous comments. She concluded that teachers’ feedback was not helpful.

While Ferris found that teachers’ feedback was a necessary part of the revision process. She noted that most of revision influenced by teacher feedback. Nelson and Carson also conducted the study about the teacher’s feedback and found the result that teacher suggestions were more seriously by implementing students more often in their revision. Ferris et al in BULUT , proved that students who receive error feedback from teachers improve in accuracy over time. While Perpignan (2003) in Zheng, drawn the disconcerting conclusion that teachers’ error feedback serves no useful purpose in the students’ learning improvement because of the lack of understanding between teachers and students. Further in his studies, Zheng found that most of students only paid attention on the marks teachers gave and ignored the errors correction at all.

  1. Peer Feedback

There were some previous studies about the effect of feedback on students’ writing skill. Berg et al in Hosack(2002) proved that feedback generated by peer review can prompt L2 writerss to make revisions that ultimately lead to better quality writing. Another research about error correction in L2 writing classes has done. Chandler in Dogan (2002), examined two ESL under graduated group receiving either direct and indirect error feedback for a 14- week semester. The result showed that indirect error feedback with students self editing contributes to accuracy more than direct error feedback.

Other researcherss who support comprehensive error feedback were Lalande (2002), he argued that students need detail feedback since they may be misled by selective error feedback. Students may think that rest of the writing is completely correct for all the errors are not marked. Lee also proved that both teacher and students tend to prefer comprehensive error correction feedback.

As stated as  Lalande, Kepner(2002) also observed the influence of feedback on students’ written work. The emphasis was on communicating meaning with assumption that a teacher should controls students learning more by communicative need than syllabus design. 60 students of Spanish were involved in the research. They composed eight guided journals entries; got surface error corrections either on feedback with explanation or on message related comment feedback. This study did not include the pre-test for treatment, post test only. His study examined the six journals to get the number of higher proportion (including interpretation/ inference, comparison/ contrast) as well as surface level errors in grammar, vocabulary, and syntax. This study concentrated on the corrective feedback in which correction was not relating to product for more accurate composition, while message related comment types of feedback dealt with high level of writing. The study revealed that the group having message-related feedback showed significance greater number of higher-level proportion than the error correction group in the other hand. In message – related feedback, students need higher language ability than error correction feedback. However, two groups did not produce number of errors. Rollinson  (2005), improved that peer feedback motivated writerss and promoted their understanding of the feedback. Mangelsdorf (1992) also proved that peer feedback was helpful to their learning.

Based on the related literature above, the writerss have opinion that feedback; whether from student and teacher direct or indirect, have effect on students’ writing skill.

 

  1. Writing

Writing is one of the four language skills that is very important to learn, It approaches to get product which influenced by some elements such as vocabularies, grammar, organization, spelling, and punctuation. As Zeng stated, that writing as one of four major language skills, has been playing the same important role in the classroom as the other three ones. Both teacher and students spend a lot of time and efforts on it in high school as well as in advanced education.

Harmer stated that teaching writing can be done both in and outside class. It gave the students more thinking time than they got when they attempt spontaneous conversation. This also allowed them more opportunity for language processing – that was thinking about the language – whether they were concerned in study or activation.

Anita and Allen in Tiedt (2006) said that writing used as an instrument of both communication and self expression. Writing was a method of expressing idea about any subject; it appeared in classrooms everywhere and therefore, must concern of every teacher.

Based on that statement above, the writers can say that writing is a process to get a written product influenced by vocabularies, grammar, organization, spelling, and punctuation, it is also an instrument to communicate and to express their idea, feeling, opinion, or about anything, and can take everywhere, whether in or outside of the classroom and as another three language skills, writing has important role in learning language, so the teacher should pay more attention to make the students enjoy in writing. According to Arvind (2006), The writing process involved 6 basic stages, which are not separate as they often flow into one another in our experience. The 6 stages are as follows: (1)Pre-writing. It’s like hatching egg from conception, incubation to hatching the plot, (2) Writing, the actual work that requires creativity and discipline, putting pen to paper or fingertips to keyboard. (3) Revising. The craftsmanship side of writing (4) Editing, putting the last touches on the work to make sure it flows well like adding any missing pieces or removing parts that don’t fit. (5) Publishing. This is the part that many writerss dislike because it’s business side of things. (6) Promotion.  It’s time to put the works on the shelf space of bookstores, media kits, distributors and many other important details.

While Matsuda and Silva in Raven (2004), said that the process writing emphasized on invention, revision and formative feedback and allows for the recursive nature of writing to be experienced by students. Although as Campbell pointed out that there was no single writing process, there are three basic stages writerss go through: prewriting, drafting, and revising. These stages also have techniques associated with them. In prewriting stage students do some brainstorming, free- writing, clustering, etc. In this stages, students are encouraged to go through multiple draft. Revising involves self, peer and teacher editing.

In actually, the writing process is not a highly organized linear process, but rather continual movement between the different steps of the writing model. In sum, writing is a continuous process of learning language, every stages cannot be separated one and another, from drafting to promoting, from prewriting to revising because in prewriting students do the brainstorming and in revising, student learnt how to give and receive feedback from themselves, peer and teacher.

 

METHODOLOGY

This study conducted quantitatively by applying the comparative experiment method. According to Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen,(2004) experimental research is one of the most powerful research methodologies that researcherss can use. Of the many types of research that might be used, the experiment is the best way to establish cause and effects relationship among variables.

In this research, the writers tried to use two approaches, the first approaches is Peer Feedback for knowing students’ writing skill and compare to Teacher Feedback. The independent variable was students’ writing skill and the dependent ones were Peer feedback and Teacher feedback. As the experimental study, the writers gave a treatment with Peer feedback to experimental group and Teacher feedback to comparison group. The groups were divided into two:  experimental group and comparison group. The treatment group was a group that was given teaching process using peer feedback, and the other one which was the comparison group was given Teacher feedback. Both treatment and comparison group were given pre – test to know the basic knowledge of them. Here the following format of research design for this experimental study:

 

Peer feedback

pre – test

X

post – test

Teacher feedback

pre – test

X

post – test

           Table 1 Research Design

 

The experimental’ research design that was used in this study to analyze the different effect between Peer feedback and Teacher feedback to students’ vocabulary mastery. Based on the design, this research took two independent variables namely Peer feedback (x1) and Teacher feedback (x2) and one dependent variable which are students’ writing skill (y). The setting of this research is at SMPN 11 Depok which is on Jalan Murbey Sukatani Housing Complex. This place is chosen as the research place because the researchers is one of the teachers in this school, so it made her easier to get and access the data required for the research. The instrument testing conducted on September 10 to 15th, 2012. Then the research conducted from October 15th to 19th, 2012.

The population of this study is VIII grade students from VIII.1-VIII.6 with the total number of students 235. The population is mixing from the regular and ‘special’ class, with their capabilities in writing are heterogenic. Some of them are able to make an understandable writing, and some of them are not. The population brings the intake score from the previous grade about 81. The score is the mean of the whole score of the population progress report’s score at the second semester. In VIII grade, students are expected to get the Minimal Score Criteria around about 75 for each skill. The samples of this research were taken 2 (two) classes of groups, one as experimental group and the other one as comparison group. The researchers took only 40 persons randomly by putting six to seven students from every class. The researchers put their names in the hat then put it randomly until she got the six to seven students from each class. To divide them in two classes, the researchers use two pieces of colorful paper, they are red and blue. The students with red paper as a treatment or experimental group got peer feedback approach and the students with blue paper got teacher’s feedback as a comparison group in their learning writing.

The instrument of this research were written test, where the students were given the writing test for the measure the writing skill. The study was experimental one, so the writers used the instrument only at the pre – test and post test and include the lesson plan material for support the experiment in the class room. For make sure the quality of the test instrument the writers also did the validity and reliability test.

In order to gain trustworthy data, the instruments that were used within a research should be reassured for its validity and reliability. As Gronlud (1998) in Brown refers to “the extent to which inferences made from assessment result are appropriate, meaningful, and useful in terms of the purpose of the assessment.” Since, the test used essay test, the writers did validity by using Pearson. Because of the tests were same questions for both approaches, so the writers only did one validity test. Based on the calculation the result of validity calculation for pre – test was 0,6766 and for the post – test was 0,5573. It means the test was valid. For the reliability, the writers did the calculation by using K-21, Because of the tests were same questions for both approaches, so the writers only did one reliability test. Based on the calculation the result of reliability calculation for pre – test was 8,025 and for the post – test was 5,8125. It means the test was valid. The procedure of data collection was conducted through several steps:  (a) First, the writers did pre – test to the experiment and comparison group to measure their basic or starting writing skill before having the treatment. (b) Second, the writers did experiment using Peer feedback when teaching writing in the classroom. But for comparison group, the writers did Teacher feedback. (c) The last, the writers took the data and made an analysis to know which feedback that has more effect to the writing skill.

The data was analyzed descriptively, and inferentially. Descriptive analysis covered mode, median, range, mean and standard deviation of data and the distribution of frequency and the normality and homogeneity using Liliefors and Barlett test. Inferential analysis was done by using t– test to see the comparison between the Peer feedback and Teacher feedback. However, before testing the hypotheses, the data was analyzed for its normality and homogeneity. All of these analyses were computed by using SPSS 17.0 and Microsoft Excel.

 

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This part presents the research findings and the discussion of the data findings. Data were analyzed using SPSS system (Statistical for Social Science) version 17.0 in order to get the result of the effect of Peer feedback and Teacher feedback on students’ writing skill. The respondents are the VIII grades students with some of characteristics; most of them are from states elementary school, their placement on the grade VIII based on the progress report score they got from the previous grades. Their intake score are 81 and their minimal graduate score is 76.

 

  1. 1.      Descriptive analysis

This part discusses the data analysis from this study such as the minimum score, maximum score, the mean, median, mode, variant, range, and the standard deviation by using Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 17.0.

  1. a.      Peer Feedback

The experiment class was the group of respondents who were taught by using peers’ feedback approach. In this group, they were got the peer feedback treatment, their paper draft at the pre test will be checked by the other students choose by the researchers as their partner. They are from outside of the treatment class. Based on the descriptive data, the description for Pre – Test are: (1) the minimal score was 42.5; (2) maximum score was 75; (3) mean score for pre – test was 61.3; (4) the mode score was 60; (5) the variants was 106.2; (6) the median was 61.25; and (7) standard deviation was 7.8. For the Post – Test, (1) the minimal score was 42.5; (2) the maximum score was 75; (3) the mean score was 62; (4) the mode score was 60; (5) the variants was 87.2; (6) the median was 61.2; and (7) the standard deviation was 7.8.

  1. b.      Teacher Feedback

The teacher feedback class was the group of respondents who were given by using Teacher feedback. In this group, they were got the peer teacher feedback treatment, their paper draft at the pre test  was checked by the teacher and her partner Based on the descriptive data, the description for Pre – Test are: (1) the minimal score was;42,5 (2) maximum score was 75; (3) mean score for pre – test was61 ;(4) the mode score was 60; (5) the variants was102,6 ; (6) the median was 63,75; and (7) standard deviation was 7,85. For the Post – Test, (1) the minimal score was 42; (2) the maximum score was 75; (3) the mean score was 61,5; (4) the mode score was 65; (5) the variants was 104,8; (6) the median was 63,75; and (7) the standard deviation was 7,8.

 

The summary of the data above can be seen in table 4.5, and used for the next analysis

 

Approaches

Scores

Peer Feedback (A1)

Teacher feedback (A2)

Total (∑)

Pre – Test  (B1)     =  20

= 61,375

=  106,23

    =  20

=  61,75

=  102,69

    =  40

= 123,125

=  6,25

Post – Test (B2)     =  20

=  62

=  87,23

   =  20

= 61,

= 104,86

    =  40

=  123,5

=  2,35

Total (∑)       =  20

= 123,375

=  180,43

      =  20

=  123,25

=  2,35

     =  80

=  246,625

=  15856,38

 

Explanation:

A1   : Peer Feedback
A2   : Teacher Feedback
B1   : Pre – test score
B2   : Post – test score
: Mean score
S2    : Variants
n   : Total respondents

 

  1. 2.      Data Requirement Analysis

Normality and homogeneity tests are used to determine whether the data are normally distributed or not and to see whether they are homogenous. These are important because the data can only be analyzed if they are normally distributed and homogenous. The test of normality and homogeneity can be presented in the following sections.

 

  1. a.      Normality Test

The Normality test is used to find out the data weather they are normally distributed or not. The writers used Liliefors Test for the normality test. There are two hypotheses that were used in determining the normality of the data. To find out weather the data distribution (See Appendix 3.B) are normal or not, the hypotheses can be formulated:

H0:      the data distribution is normal

H1:      the data distribution is not normal

No

Kind of Test

N

L0 – value

L– critical

Explanation

1

Pre –test PFB

20

0,1817

0,1900

Normal

2

Post – test PFB

20

0,1800

0,1900

Normal

3

Pre – test TFB

20

0,1700

0,1900

Normal

4

Post – test TFB

20

0,1649

0,1900

Normal

Table 4.6.The normality of data distribution

 

Based on table 4.6, the data are normal. The criteria itself Lcritic for n=20 is 0,1900 , the Lvalue is lower than Lcritic,. The data are normal because of the L0 is lower than Lcritic withα 0.05 or 5%. It also indicates that the null hypotheses (H0) was accepted and research hypotheses (H1) was rejected. Since both pre – test and post test from the two groups are normal, the analysis can be conducted further because one of the requirements is already fulfilled, which is the normality data test.

 

  1. b.      Homogeneity Test

The test of homogeneity used in this research is Barlett Test of the pre – test and post – test both of groups. Here the following hypotheses and criteria:

H0:        data is from homogeneity population

H1:         data is from homogeneity population

Test criteria is:  
   Accepting H0 (rejecting H1), if   x2value

<

x2critic
   Rejecting H0 (accepting H1), if   x2value

>

x2critic

Table4.7 Homogeneity Test criteria

 

Based on the calculation, the x2 value was 0,0006, and x2 critic value for df = 5 and α = 5% was 11,07 . It can be seen that x2 value is lower than x2 critic value. Based on the hypotheses and test criteria, it can be stated that the null hypotheses (H0) was accepted and the research hypothesis (H1)rejected.

 

  1. 3.      Inferential Analysis

The inferential analysis was conducted to answer the hypotheses. To get the gain score, the data was calculated by using SPPS 17.00 for both methods. So, it must be seen whether they are higher or lower than α. The assumptions are:

The inferential analysis was conducted to answer the hypotheses. To get the gain score, the data was calculated by using SPPS 17.00 for both methods. So, it must be seen whether they are higher or lower than α. The assumptions are:

 

1)      The difference between Pre – test and Post – test for Peer Feedback group.

  1. If the significant value is less than 0.05, there is significant improvement between pre – test and post test form the Peer feedback group.
  2. If the significant value is more than 0.05, there is no significant improvement between pre – test and post – test form the Peer Feedback group.

Based on the calculation, the significant value for the paired sample t– test was 0.0359 lower than 0.05. It indicates that there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the experimental group.

 

2)      The difference between Pre- test and Post – test for Teacher Feedback group.

  1. If the significant value is less than 0.05, there is significant improvement between pre – test and post test form the comparison group.
  2. If the significant value is more than 0.05, there is no significant improvement between pre – test and post – test form the comparison group.

 

Based on the calculation, the significant value for the paired sample t– test was 0.0317 lower than 0.05. It indicates that there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the Teacher feedback group.

 

3)      The differences between peers’ and teachers’ feedback on students’ writing skill of Descriptive text?

  1. Peer feedback is more effective than Teacher feedback
  2. Teacher feedback is more effective than Peer feedback

The gain score is used to know how effective the both methods to the vocabulary mastery. To know their effectiveness,  the following calculation is used:

 

g =

The gain calculation that can be interpreted by using Hake (2002)[1] can be seen in the following table:

G result

Interpretation

g > 0,7

High

0, 3 < g  0,7

Medium

g  0,3

Low

Table 4.8 Gain Classification (g)

 

To find out what the method that is more effective, it can be seen from the mean score of the gain from both of groups. It indicates that the mean score for gain of Peer feedback was 0.395, and for gain of Teacher feedback was 0.470. Based on table 4.7, the mean score of Peer feedback method was higher, and the gain of Teacher feedback was low. So, it can be inferred that the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected and the research hypothesis (H1) was accepted, thus there is different effectiveness between both methods. Teacher feedback is more effective method than Peer feedback.

This study used the two independent variables (Peer and Teacher feedback), and one dependent variable (the students’ writing skill). The study used experimental one, where the writers did treatment to the subjects of research.  The respondents were chosen by random sampling in which each respondent had the same opportunity to be a sample of this study.  As stated by Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen (2004), “a simple random sample is one in which each and every number of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected.” It means the random sampling that writers took for this study was correct.

For getting the data, the writers did random sampling then put the subject on two groups, which are Peer feedback and Teacher feedback. The peer feedback was the group who had feedback from someone who has similar level as the subject. The teacher feedback group was the group who got feedback from their teacher. As writers assumption before, both of group has effect to the writing skill and it was proved on this study. The process of experiment in the class room was held on October 15 until October 20, 2012. The experiment did on grade XIII of 1st semesters.

The data calculation was proved by the t– test and gain test for knowing which approach that has more effect to the writing skill. The writers did descriptive analysis for knowing general data, then did data requirement test for knowing homogeneity and normality the data then continued to inferential analysis for test the hypotheses. Based on the calculation, the significant value for the paired sample t– test was 0.0359 lower than 0.005. It indicates that there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the Peer feedback group. Based on the calculation the significant value for the paired sample t– test was 0.0317 lower than 0.05. It indicates that there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the Teacher feedback group.  To find out what the method that is more effective, it can be seen from the mean score of the gain from both of groups. It indicates that the mean score for gain of Peer feedback was 0.395, and for gain of Teacher feedback was 0.470. Based on table 4.7, the mean score of Peer feedback method was higher, and the gain of Teacher feedback was low. So, it can be inferred that the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected and the research hypothesis (H1) was accepted, thus there is different effectiveness between both methods. Teacher feedback is more effective method than Peer feedback. For complete data explanation see As the result of study, the writers got proven that the Peer feedback gave higher effects than Teacher feedback on students’ writing skill. It was proved by the gain score of Peer feedback is higher than Teacher feedback.

 

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

  1. A.    Conclusion

Based on the result of the data analysis, the hypothesis tests, and the discussion, the following conclusions are drawn:

 

  1. The result of the study had shown that there was different result pre- test and post test on Peer feedback.  From Based on the calculation, the significant value for the paired sample t– test was 0.0359 lower than 0.005. It indicates that there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the Peer Feedback group. It means that the Peer Feedback gives effects to the students’ writing skill.

 

  1. It had showed that there was different result pre- test and post test on Teacher feedback. Based on the calculation the significant value for the paired sample t– test was 0.0317 lower than 0.05. It indicates that there is significant improvement between the pre – test and post test from the Teacher feedback group.

 

  1. It had showed that the Teacher feedback is higher than Peer feedback. To find out what the method that was more effective, it can be seen from the mean score of the gain from both of groups (See Appendix 3.D). It indicates that the mean score for gain of Peer feedback was 0.395, and for gain of Teacher feedback was 0.470. Based on table 4.7, the mean score of Peer feedback method was higher, and the gain of Teacher feedback was low. So, it can be inferred that the null hypothesis (H0) was rejected and the research hypothesis (H1) was accepted, thus there is different effectiveness between both methods. Teacher feedback is more effective method than Peer feedback.

 

  1. B.     Suggestion 

In relation to the conclusion above, the following suggestions are put forward:

  1. 1.      Researchers

For upcoming researchers who are interested in doing a research on similar topic, it will be better to use a larger sample so that the finding would give a better representation of the population.

  1. 2.      Students

For the students, they can improve their writing skill by using teacher feedback. And the feed back can be reflection so they will make their writing better in the future.

  1. 3.      Institution

For the institution which is school, this study can be input to implement the approaches to improve students’ writing skill.

  1. 4.      Teachers 

For teachers this study also can be input to implement the approaches to improve students’ writing skill. And the writers suggest to teacher to give feedback to their students, so the students will be motivated to make their writing better day by day.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Christen Goring Kepner. 1993. An Experiment in the Relationship of types of written feedback to the Development of second language skill. The Modern Journal 75(3) Autum: 305-312

H. Douglas Brown. 2004. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. New York: Longman – Pearson.

Ian Hosack, The effect of Anonymous Feedback on Japanese University Students’ Attitudes towards peer Review

Jeremy Harmer, 2007. How to teach English. Ocelot Publishing, Oxford. :Longman

Tiedt, Irish Mc Clelalan, 1989. Writing from Topic to Evaluation. 9( USA Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data)

Tim Pustaka Yudistira. 2008. Panduan Penyusunan KTSP lengkap , Yogyakarta.:Pustaka Yustisia

Dogan BULUT, Error Treatment in L2 of direct and Indirect Coded Feedback in Turkish EFL Context. Assesed from http://sbc.erciyes.edu.tr/dergi/sayi_22/24 on March 2011.p.1

Zeng Yanhong, Maret 2006 Volume 3 No. 3. Peer Feedback in College SLW Classroom. P. 1

Arvind. 2006. The 6 stages of Writing. Assessed on March, 2011 from http://www.marquette.edu/wac/What makesWritingSo Important.shtml. p.2

 

 

 


 

February 17, 2010

THE STEPS USING INTERACTIVE CD OF “FUN LEARNING: Vocabulary” FOR INCREASING VOCABULARY ABILITY AT THE PRIMARY STUDENTS

Filed under: Final Paper ICT — rosdianasidik @ 1:39 am

Introduction

Technology is dealing with human as well as other animal species’ usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species’ ability to control and adapt to its natural environment. Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today’s global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Nowadays, ICT or Information Communication Technology as part of modern technology and  allow users to participate in a rapidly changing world in which work and other activities are increasingly transformed by access to varied and developing technologies. As tools, ICT can be used for finding, exploring, analyzing, exchanging and presenting information responsibly and without discrimination. ICT can be employed to give users quick access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people, communities and cultures. Then there is a big question, why is technology important to support our teaching and learning process? As we know, life is so dynamic, and also technology grows up following it. So, there is ICT (Information, Communication and Technology) as one of method to support our learning teaching process. In the writer opinion, using of ICT can support to maximize teaching and learning process. One of them is using interactive CD program, to support and improving ability of students. In this paper writer wants to analyzing the using of CD program, “Fun Learning: Vocabulary for inceasing vocabulary ability at primary students, so there are some steps for students in using the interactive CD of “Fun learning: Vocabulary” and It advantages and disadvantages for increasing vocabulary ability.

Objectives

There are some objective in writing this paper and writer hope this paper is able to use to increasing and maximize teaching and learning process. Those objectives are:

  1. To know the steps using the CD of “Fun Learning: Vocabulary”
  2. To know how effective this CD for increasing and supporting teaching learning process especially vocabulary ability.

Theoretical Reviews

Interactive is doing something with attractive between two person or two something. According to Hartoyo on book of Individual Differences (2008:90) “interactivity refers to how the program can stimulate interaction, especially between the computer and the users. It includes the effectiveness of the instructions and feedback provided in the program.” With interactive CDs, it can help in teaching and learning process and to improve student ability with interactive CD.

Vocabulary means all the words which exist in a particular language. A vocabulary is defined as “all the words known and used by a particular person”. However, the words known and used by a particular person do not constitute all the words a person is exposed to. By definition, a vocabulary includes the last two categories of this list: (Wikipedia)

  1. Never encountered the word.
  2. Heard the word, but cannot define it.
  3. Recognize the word due to context or tone of voice.
  4. Able to use the word but cannot clearly explain it.
  5. Fluent with the word – its use and definition.

Vocabulary means a list of words. Someone’s vocabulary is all the words that he or she knows. A 5 year old person maybe probably knows about 5000 words. An adult who has studied at university or college may be knows at least 20000 words in their language.

Primary students are students who learn in elementary school.  Primary education is the first step of compulsory education. It is preceded by pre-school or nursery education and is followed by secondary education. In primary school, students learn everything for support their life and for their next step future.

Analysis

According to theoretical reviews above, writer can analyze there are some steps using interactive CD “Fun Learning: Vocabulary” for increasing vocabulary ability at primary students.

First step is give pre – test for the students. Why give pre – test is important? Pre – test is used to know the ability of students before learning the vocabularies using interactive CD “Fun learning: Vocabulary”. In this pre – test, teacher should give some test to know in what level of them. It’s easy to teacher seeing their progress later and to start in what level in using this interactive CD.  A pre – test administered to determine a student’s basic knowledge or preparedness for an educational experience or course of study.

Second step is telling them introduction about the CD program. The introduction is important, because it is like a guide to students to start using this CD program. If they are know well how to use it, it make easy to do all learning process well. In introduce the CD program to the students, teacher have to use simple instruction. It is very useful because students will easier to understand.

Next step is using this CD program to improve their vocabulary ability. This CD program “Fun Learning: Vocabulary is CD that can be used for primary student. After writer analyzed, this CD so very interactive and attractive because in this CD the instructions was clear and help students in interactivity and also easy to understand. It is very help for student to make easy using this CD. With clear instruction, they will understand easily and start using this CD well. In this CD program also the materials are flexible and easy to navigate. In this CD program, the content can be used since it is appropriate with the guide lined topics and was addressed for the basic students. In effectiveness is very effective. The students can choose the level of difficulties suitable with their competence start from the easy one to the hard one and also using interesting animation, colors and music.

The last step is take post- test to know the result after using the CD program “Fun learning: Vocabulary”. After learning using interactive CD program “Fun Learning: Vocabulary” teacher can make some post- test to know result of student improvement after using this program.  A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned.

Summary and Recommendation

Summary

Based on all explanation above, writer can conclude that there are four steps in using CD program “Fun Learning: Vocabulary” for increasing vocabulary activities at primary students, which are giving pre – test for the students, telling them introduction about the CD program, using this CD program to improve their vocabulary ability, taking post- test to know the result after using the CD program “Fun learning: Vocabulary”.

Bibliography

Hartoyo, Individual Differences: in computer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Pelita Insani Semarang. 2006.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Students (accessed on February 17, 2010)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/vocabulary (accessed on February 15,2010)

February 2, 2010

Analyzing CDs of CALL (Computer Assisted language Leaning) Program in implementing ICT into Language Learning

Filed under: ICT task — rosdianasidik @ 2:27 pm

Introduction

In process of learning English, there is so many method and approach that can be used to improving our ability in various skills, like reading, vocabulary, speaking and etc. Nowadays, there is one of method that can be supported our learning process and make it easier to learn. It is called CALL or Computer Assisted Language Learning.   Every aspect in life almost has been influenced widely by technology, and also in education. There are methods in language teaching has been created and implemented to achieve better improvement in language learning. The latest method has involved technology especially in utilization of the computer. The CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning), indeed, has an indigenous role in language learning at schools and courses. The performance and interactive aspects that CALL provided, has become the great value in language learning progress.

The Principles Designing and Testing CALL Program

According to Hartoyo (2006: 90) there are five principles for designing and testing the CALL Program, which are:

1. Interactivity (feedback and instruction)

Interactivity refers to how the program can stimulate interaction, especially interaction between the computer and the user. It includes the effectiveness of the instructions and feedback provided in the program.

2. Usability (Flexibility)

Usability (Flexibility) refers to the flexibility, ease and inherent interest of the program used, and how far the material meets the student’s need.

3. Content Appropriateness

Content Appropriateness is concerned with the amount of material presented in the program, how easily the material is learned and understood, and how far the material meets the student’s need.

4. Effectiveness

Effectiveness refers to how effectively the program assists language learners to improve their mastery of grammar.

5. Performance (Attractiveness)

Performance (Attractiveness) refers to the presentation, lay out of the screen, the color, and the illustrations (picture, diagram, charts, etc) used in the program.

Result of Analyzing CDS

CD 1. VOCABULARY

1 Interactivity

(Feedback & Instruction)

The instructions was clear and help students in interactivity and also easy to understand
2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are flexible and easy to navigate.
3 Content Appropriateness The content can be used since it is appropriate with the guide lined topics and was addressed for the basic students.
4 Effectiveness Very effective. The students can choose the level of difficulties suitable with their competence start from the easy one to the hard one.
5 Performance (Attractiveness) The animation, colors and music are interesting.
My comment Suitable for primary students or young learner, because they will like the performance of the game and they will happy use it.

CD 2. English Word

1 Interactivity

(Feedback & Instruction)

Teacher need to assist the Students in how to operate the program. Some parts of the instructions are hard to be understood.
2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are flexible and easy to navigate.
3 Content Appropriateness The content can be used since it is appropriate with the guide lined topics and is suitable for the kindergartens students.
4 Effectiveness Quite effective
5 Performance (Attractiveness) Shapes and colors are attractive. Music sound little bit loudly which destructs the instruction.
My comment Suitable for kindergartens students because it contain of many basic vocabulary

CD 3. LEARN ENGLISH “BEGINNERS”

1 Interactivity

(Feedback & Instruction)

The program allows good interactivity.
2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials in the program meet the students’ need to learn English interactively.
3 Content Appropriateness The content helps the students to learn English from the beginning and start to next level of learning English
4 Effectiveness Very effective. The native speakers provide the real model and they can learn for the native speaker.
5 Performance (Attractiveness) The whole package (pictures and colors) is very attractive.
My comment Suitable for primary student start from grade 4 and secondary students.

CD 4. SPEAK ENGLISH INTERMEDIATE

1 Interactivity

(Feedback & Instruction)

The program provides communicative activity that is stimulated the students to get involve.
2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are flexible and easy for understandable
3 Content Appropriateness The content helps the students in practicing their speaking ability.
4 Effectiveness Very effective.
5 Performance (Attractiveness) The whole performance of the program was fantastic.
My comment Suitable for secondary students and adult learners.

Closing

Shortly, the CDs has some advantages and disadvantages, and suitable for many kind of level in students, start from kindergarten until adult learners. It depends on the purpose of the learning process.

December 18, 2009

The Advantages and Disadvantages using Interactive Website in Vocabulary activities at Elementary schools students

Filed under: ICT task, Mid test ICT — rosdianasidik @ 4:46 am

Rosdiana Sidik

Introduction

In English language learning there are many factors that make our learning is success. One of the factors is the tool or ways in learning process. Now days, there is one of happening way in language learning, it called Information Communication and Technology or ICT. ICT is one of method that is used to make learning process easier.  In ICT itself there is many was that can be helped us in language learning. The multimedia is one of product from ICT that can be implemented in many kind of learning activities. Multimedia is not only about modern computer, but also the content that supporting it. There are so many contents that can be supported in multimedia. One of them is interactive Website that is fulfilled by many supporting contents. According to http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/interactive.htm “Interactive Websites provide standards-based cross curricular web resources designed to enhance online learning opportunities.  These sites interact with the user usually through either a text-based or graphical user interface.”  Interactive websites make students in providing information and resources with practices, simulations, and other learning activities especially for children at elementary school.

In learning English, there are many comprehensions that can be supported by multimedia tools. For example, reading, listening, speaking, vocabulary, etc. but, in this paper, writer tries to share about using multimedia, such as interactive website in vocabulary activities. In my opinion, vocabulary activities is one of activities that exploring about vocabularies with purposes to mastering them. Using this interactive website in vocabulary activities make our learning process easier, so the there are some advantages and disadvantage using interactive website in vocabulary activities.

The advantages using interactive website in vocabulary activities

Every activities must be has the advantages, and we make some effort to get them for get some result after finishing them. In this paper, the writer try to make a condition at elementary school because the children as first step learning at formal school. In my opinion there are several advantages using interactive website in vocabulary activities below:

First, we can make learning using interactive website in vocabulary activities more fun. When the children learn vocabulary, they will try to remember what they learn. Many people build their English vocabulary through a blend of methods — by taking English classes, reading many books, watching some movies in English, even studying English with English language software,but for children it is so hard and they want some learning that makes them happy. Playing word and vocabulary games is a fun part of learning English. There are thousands of vocabulary words in our vocabulary lists. In this case, using interactive website can be more fun than reading a book. Because they are not just reading all the time, but there is music, sound, and picture that is more fun for them.

Second, we are able to make children more enjoyable to learn vocabulary. In vocabulary activities, there are so many things that have to do, because children have to remember and understand what they have learned. In interactive website, they will use some interactive multimedia through internet that fulfilled with kinds of sounds and pictures.  With enjoying what they learn, children are not feel forced and they are enjoying the learning activities. If they are getting bored in learning something, they will not remember what they have learned in maximum. In the other had, if they are enjoy it, they will remember the words. Many of interactive websites in vocabulary activities is using word games that are organized with dozens of categories of vocabulary lists. By making connections between words and ideas, and between words and pictures, it builds vocabulary skills. Connections between vocabulary words make the process of building vocabulary skills not only faster and more efficient, but also enjoyable.

Third, we can make children easy to get new vocabulary through interactive website. If they are already get fun, enjoy and the result is easy to get new vocabulary using interactive websites. Children have good memory to remember what they learn, so if they are easy to remembering new vocabularies in fun and enjoy way, they will remember the vocabularies well. In interactive websites, children feel like they are in games site. They will feel interested to those kinds of games, and finally remember the words correctly and easily.

Forth, we can try to introduce technology to children. Childhood is a one step that persons start to learn new things in their life.  The use of computers and an understanding of how to use the Internet are already critical to modern society today in manifest directions. For children it is such new interesting part of their life, because they can learn in various ways using like sound and picture in multimedia tools. Introducing technology to children very soon, it so very good idea to parents and children, as that writer said in previous paragraph, children have good remember new things. So, of we introduce them soon about technology, they will remember it well. In the future, they will capable to use computer for supporting their learning process.  

The disadvantages using interactive website in vocabulary activities

Besides the advantages, in my opinion there are some disadvantages using interactive website in vocabulary activities

First, children have tendencies lazy to read books. When children reading a book, they will learn all abilities not only a vocabulary but also reading. Computer based content like interactive website is a long way from offering the depth, flexibility and tried and tested results that a trained, dedicated and experienced teacher can offer children. In addition, the interaction with a sophisticated adult allows critical advanced vocabulary and personalization skills. Beside that, most digital content is overly simplistic in its structure. For example, a sum can only be wrong or right. The content will not explain to the student why the sum was wrong. On the other hand, a real teacher will mark a piece of work and offer the essential logic reasoning for the decision that will enable the student to gain a fundamental understanding of the system behind what constitutes correct or incorrect. They jeopardized relationships, achievements, or educational opportunities because of the Internet.

Second, children will addict to using internet.  The Internet and others mobile technologies are increasingly important to the educational and social lives of children, and are becoming a part of children’s identity. If children already have addicted feeling to something, they will want use it more and more. In this case, the interactive website that is supported by multimedia tools maybe able to make them addicted. And as the result they prefer to sit in front their computer tools that go to class to study. Even, they are skipping meals, losing sleep and time for other things and maybe rearranging daily routines and neglecting studies or other activities and responsibilities to spend more time online. This has the potential to affect school performance and relationships with friends or family.  Children prefer to spend more time online than with friends or family. For example, children often loses track of time while online and their sleep is sacrificed for the opportunity to spend more time online. They lie to family member and friends about the amount of time or nature of surfing being done on the Internet. Children become irritable if not allowed to access the Internet and they have lost interest in activities they once found enjoyable before getting online access. And as bad result they have trouble distinguishing between the virtual world and the real world.

Third, children should be utilizing their natural propensity for physically based activity rather than be ‘stuck’ in front of a computer. They already spend damaging amounts of time glued to televisions, as researchers have discovered, that impairs development. Our children, the Surgeon General warns, are the most sedentary generation ever. Computers pose health hazards to children. The risks include repetitive stress injuries, eyestrain, obesity, social isolation, and, for some, long-term physical, emotional, or intellectual developmental damage.  There are also physical problems associated with bad diet. They eat in front of the computer frequently, lack of exercise and also with extended computer use (for example dry eyes, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, and backache) The Internet is frequently used as a means of escaping from problems or relieving a depressed mood.

Forth, children must be protected from the dangers of the Internet, talkers, adult content, hate and violence. Filtering software is notoriously inefficient. The Internet is a tool that can be used for good and evil. The Internet Dangers section highlights the primary dangers to kids online with specific focus on the sexual exploitation of children. For first step they will only use interactive website just for learning activities like vocabulary activities. But, of as next step they will interest to the other things like pornography, gambling sites. Pornography can be thought of as all sexually explicit material intended primarily to arouse the reader, viewer, or listener. Each category of illegal pornography has a specific legal definition established by the courts. The Supreme Court has said that there are four categories of pornography that can be determined illegal. Illegal pornography includes indecency, material harmful to minors, obscenity, and child pornography. Legal Definitions of Pornography Excerpted from Appendix D, Kids Online: Protecting Your Children In Cyberspace
by Donna Rice Hughes (Revell, September 1998)

Pornography-A generic term that can refer to materials that are either “legal” or “illegal” to disseminate under the circumstances. “Pornography” encompasses all sexually oriented material intended primarily to arouse the reader, viewer, or listener. See Webster’s Dictionary; Miller v California, 413 U.S. 15, 18 n. 2 (1973); Final Report, Attorney General’s Commission on Pornography (1986), Chapter One, “Defining our Central Terms.” Serious works of art, literature, politics, or science; “mere nudity,” medical works, even though they deal with sex or include sexual references or depictions, would not be considered “pornography” in the context of their legitimate uses. On the other hand, since obscenity can include both actual and simulated conduct, all “Hard-Core Pornography” that depicts penetration clearly visible (“PCV”) is “implicitly” within the application of the constitutional criteria of the Supreme Court’s obscenity test. See Mishkin v New York, 383 U.S. 506, 508 (1966), Miller v California, 413 U.S. 15, 29 (1973).

According to http://www.onlinecasinoadvisory.com states that an Oxford professor says that her studies show the biggest danger to children online, rather than online gambling, may be in being online at all. Susan Greenfield, a professor of synaptic pharmacology, finds that repeated and extended time using a computer by adolescents can cause damage to young, developing brains. Greenfield’s evidence indicates parents obsessed with preventing their children from the horrors of glimpsing an Internet casino may instead want to consider turning the computer off. Rather than seek problematic national bans of online gaming sites, parents may want to simply place strong limits on the time children can spend using computers, much as television viewing is restricted by many concerned and involved parents. Greenfield explains that the human brain is still forming itself until well into teenage years. By not receiving a normal array of stimulation, including experience outside the narrow domain of the computer, development can be damaged or arrested.

If you damage the prefrontal cortex, your senses and movements are not impaired but you change,” Greenfield. “You become more reckless lose a sense of sequence and consequence, of narrative and of your place in these sequences.”

Still at same source, she stated that this area of the brain, so sensitive to proper input while young, is the same area that controls impulses and is often found to be a cause of problem gambling, drug addiction, and other mental disorders. Greenfield explains that all human learning is based on a narrative, placing new knowledge in a contextual and conceptual framework. Without such, sensory input becomes merely sensational, losing the thinking process that should develop. The professor says that exposure to computer presentation does not allow for the context to properly develop, causing thinking only in the moment, such as experienced in impulse control. So, worrying about the effect of online gambling in causing problem gambling may be ignoring the actual cause, an overdose of computer imagery while the adolescent brain is forming.

Closing

In sum, using interactive website in vocabulary activities for elementary students has four the advantages, which are making learning using interactive website in vocabulary activities more fun, making children more enjoyable to learn vocabulary, making children easy to get new vocabulary through interactive website, trying to introduce technology to children. However, there are also some disadvantages for children at elementary schools, which are having tendencies lazy to read books, addicting of using internet, utilizing their natural propensity for physically based activity rather than be ‘stuck’ in front of a computer, being protected from the dangers of the Internet, talkers, adult content, hate and violence.

November 29, 2009

bis ngerjain tugas kuliah,,,

Filed under: status — rosdianasidik @ 3:57 am

bis ngerjain tugas kuliah,,,

November 27, 2009

I’ve just upload my files into my blog….

Filed under: status — rosdianasidik @ 11:24 am

I’ve just upload my files into my blog..

make a paragraph (Internet’s negative effects)

Filed under: Academic Writing — rosdianasidik @ 11:16 am

NAME              : ROSDIANA

CLASS              : I.B

SUBJECT          : ACADEMIC WRITING (Revised)

LECTURER       : DR. Gunawan Suryoputro, M.Hum

The internet can have negative effects on children

In my opinion, there are three negative effects of internet on children; such as, making children addicted to internet, forgetting to study, and seeing forbidden sites.  First, internet make children addict because it makes them curios and want more and more. For example, if they see some games site and like it so much, as a result they become addicted. If they have already addicted, they will play very often. Second, the internet makes them forget to study because they prefer to use internet than study their lesson. They will think play with internet more interesting than reading a book. Third, the most negative effect that they can see forbidden sites. They will try to browse everything in internet without supervision from parents and also see forbidden sites. For example, they will see prostitute or gambling site even a crime site. This site is forbidden because there is limit of age for use it and they are not ready yet to use it. In sum, there are three bad effects of internet on children.

Make an Essay (Agressive Drivers)

Filed under: Academic Writing — rosdianasidik @ 11:14 am

NAME             :  ROSDIANA

NIM                 : 0908066036

CLASS              :  I. B

SUBEJCT          :  ACADEMIC WRITING

LECTURER       :  DR. GUNAWAN SURYOPUTRO, M.HUM

 

Aggressive Drivers

The number of vehicles on freeways and streets is increasing at an alarming rate. This influx of motor vehicles is creating hazardous conditions. Moreover, drivers are in such as to get their destinations that may become angry or impatient with other motorists who are too slow or who are in their way. Aggressive drivers react toward others in several dangerous ways.

One way an angry driver may react is to cut off another motorist.  They are usually move to others line to show how their angry to other drivers. They tend to exceed safe speed limits, change lanes frequently, cut off other drivers, and force their way ahead. For example, the drives are crossing to other even cross into Trans Jakarta’s lines. They force his way ahead in traffic by engaging in reckless and dangerous maneuvers. For instance, they drive zigzag to show how brave they are.

Another way is to tailgate the other car. They usually do this way to show anger, impatience, competitiveness, and vindictiveness in frequently driving situations. In this way, they often follow other car too closely with high speed.  For example, a car drives in high speed and other car try to race that car and drive in tailgate each other competitively.   Even, they are sometimes using alcohol and drug. In this case, it refers to an incident in which a driver physically attacks another driver because of a traffic dispute.

Although law enforcement authorities warn motorists against aggressive driving, the number who acts out their angry impulses has not declined.  It happen because of the drivers think that showing their angry it means they are brave. Especially if they are men, they will show how man they are. With driving aggressively, they can show their vehicles to other. Sometimes, they drive aggressively, just to show up what they have in their ride. The aggressive drivers also think that they will be respected by other drivers with acts their angry, emotion in driving aggressively.

To conclude, aggressive drivers are endangering everyone because they create hazardous conditions by acting and driving foolishly. They should control their anger and learn to drive safely. After all, the lives they save could be their own.

 

 

 

Group Assignment

Filed under: Philosophy of Science — rosdianasidik @ 11:12 am

GROUP ASSIGNMENT

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

BASED ON BRONOWSKY ‘S BOOK

ENGLISH POST – GRADUATE PROGRAM

UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH PROF. DR. HAMKA

WRITTEN BY:

ROSDIANA

SILFY AMELIA ACHTAR

SIGIT SUHARJONO

CLASS B

 

 

 

 

The Ascent of Man

(Translation of pages 38-40)

 

 

Sepuluh juta tahun kemudian membawa kita ke masa dua puluh juta tahun yang lalu, yaitu masa ketika hidup sesosok makhluk yang sekarang kita sebut kera anthropoid di Afrika Timur, Eropa dan Asia. Sebuah temuan klasik yang didapat oleh Louis Leaky muncul dengan nama yang terpuji Proconsul, dan setidaknya ada satu genus lainnya yang tersebar luas, Dryopithecus. (Nama Proconsul merupakan rekaan antropologis; nama itu diciptakan untuk mengisyaratkan bahwa dia adalah nenek moyang dari seekor simpanse terkenal di Kebun Binatang London pada tahun 1931 yang namanya adalah Consul.) Otaknya nampak lebih besar, matanya mengarah penuh ke depan dengan pandangan stereoskopis. Perkembangan ini memberitahu kepada kita  bagaimana garis utama kera dan manusia bergerak. Namun, sebagaimana yang mungkin, garis ini sudah bercabang lagi, sejauh yang manusia ketahui, mahluk ini berada di garis cabang- garis kera. Gigi-giginya menunjukkan kepada kita bahwa dia adalah kera karena rahangnya yang terpaut oleh taring yang besar itu tidaklah seperti manusia.

Perubahan pada gigilah yang mengisaratkan pemisahan garis yang menuju ke manusia, saat dia datang. Pertanda pertama yang kita miliki adalah Ramapithecus, yang ditemukan di Kenya dan India. Mahluk ini berumur empat belas juta tahun, dan kita hanya memiliki potongan-potongan rahangnya. Namun jelas bahwa giginya rata dan lebih menyerupai manusia. Taring besar kera anthropoid sudah tiada, wajahnya jauh lebih rata, dan kita, degan bukti itu, dekat dengan percabangan pohon evolusi; sebagian anthropolog dengan berani memasukkan Ramapithecus ke jajaran homonida.

 

Ada kekosongan dalam catatan fosil antara lima sampai sepuluh juta tahun. Tak dapat dipungkiri, kekosongan itu menyembunyikan bagian yang paling membangkitkan rasa ingin tahu dari kisah ini, ketika garis hominida menuju manusia terpisah dari gari kera moderen. Tetapi kita belum menemukan catatan yang tegas dari itu. Lalu, mungkin lima juta tahun yang lalu, kita secara pasti menuju ke kerabat manusia.

Sepupu manusia, bukan satu garis langsung dengan kita, adalah Australopithecus tegap yang merupakan vegetarian. Australopithecus robustus mirip manusia dan garisnya tidak mengarah ke manapun; dia telah benar-benar punah. Bukti-bukti bahwa dia memakan tumbuh-tumbuhan, sekali lagi, ada pada gigi-giginya, dan sangat jelas: gigi-gigi yang bertahan terlubangi oleh pasir dari akar-akaran yang dia makan.

Sepupunya yang segaris dengan manusia sedikit lebih ringan- tampak begitu pada rahangnya- dan mungkin merupakan pemakan daging. Dia adalah yang terdekat dengan apa yang biasa disebut ‘garis yang hilang’: Australopithecus africanus, salah satu dari sejumlah fosil tengkorak yang ditemukan di Sterkfontein di Transvaal dan di tempat lain lagi di Africa, seorang wanita dewasa. Si anak kecil Taung, yang saya awali, mungkin akan telah tumbuh dewasa seperti dia; tegak, berjalan, dengan otak agak besar yang berbobot antara satu sampai satu setengah poun. Itulah ukuran otak seekor kera besar sekarang; tapi tentu saja ini adalah sesosok mahluk kecil yang berdiri tegak hanya empat kaki tingginya. Sungguh, penemuan-penemuan terbaru oleh Richard Leakey mengisaratkan bahwa dua juta tahun yang lalu otaknya lebih besar dari itu.

Dan dengan otak yang lebih besar nenek moyang manusia membuat dua penemuan utama, yang salah satunya kita miliki sebagai bukti yang dapat dilihat dan satunya lagi sebagai bukti yang dapat disimpulkan. Pertama, bukti yang terlihat. Dua juta tahun yang lalu Australopithecus membuat peralatan batu kasar dimana pukulan sederhana telah meletakkan sisinya pada batu kerikil. Dan selama berjuta-juta tahun kemudian, manusia, pada evolusinya yang lebih jauh, tidak mengganti peralatan jenis ini. Dia telah membuat penemuan yang penting, tindakan yang bertujuan yang mempersiapkan dan menyimpan batu kerikil untuk digunakan nanti. Dengan terobosan ketrampilan dan pandangan kedepan itu, sebuah tindakan simbolis penemuan masa depan, dia telah melepaskan rem yang lingkungan kenakan kepada semua mahluk lainnya. Penggunaan alat yang sama dalam jangka waktu yang begitu lama menunjukkan kekuatan dari penemuan tersebut. Itu dilakukan dengan cara yang sederhana, dengan menekan ujungnya yang tebal dengan telapak tangan dalam cengkraman yang kuat. (Nenek moyang manusia memiliki jempol yang pendek, karena itu tidak dapat memanipulasi dengan halus, tetapi dapat menggunakan cengkraman yang kuat.) Dan tentu saja, itu adalah peralatan seorang pemakan daging untuk memotong dan menghancurkan.

Penemuan lainnya adalah sosial, dan kita menyimpulkannya dengan aritmatik yang lebih halus. Tempurung dan tengkorak Australopithecus yang telah diketemukan dalam jumlah yang agak besar menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besarnya meninggal sebelum usia duapuluh tahun. Itu berarti bahwa ada banyak yatim piyatu. Karena Australopithecus mempunyai masa kanak-kanak yang panjang, sebagaimana semua primata; pada usia sepuluh tahun, misalnya, yang bertahan hidup tetaplah masih anak-anak. Karena itu pastilah ada organisasi sosial yang mana anak-anak dirawat dan diadopsi, dijadikan bagian dari komunitas, dan dididik. Itu adalah sebuah langkah yang hebat menuju evolusi kultural.

Pada tahap apa kita dapat mengatakan bahwa tanda manusia dapat menjadi manusia itu sendiri? Itu pertanyaan yang sulit, sebab perubahan itu tidak terjadi dalam waktu semalam. Suatu kebodohan jika kita berusaha untuk membuatnya tampak lebih cepat dari yang sesungguhnya-untuk menetapkan pergeserannya dengan terlalu tajam atau untuk berargumentasi tentang nama. Dua juta tahun yang lalu kita belum menjadi manusia. Satu juta tahun yang lalu kita sudah menjadi manusia, karena sekitar satu juta tahun yang lalu sesosok makhluk muncul yang dapat disebut Homo-Homo erectus. Dia menyebar luas melalui Afrika. Dia adalah manusia Peking, sekitar empat ratus ribu tahun yang lalu, dan dia adalah makhluk pertama yang pasti menggunakan api.

Perubahan pada Homo erectus yang telah mengarah ke kita adalah hal yang substansial selama lebih dari satu juta tahun, tetapi perubahan itu tampak perlahan debanding dengan yang terjadi sebelumnya. Penerusnya yang sangat kita kenal pertama kali ditemukan di Jerman pada abad terakhir; tengkorak fosil klasik lainnya, dia adalah manusia Neanderthal. Dia sudah memiliki otak seberat tiga poun, sebesar otak manusia modern saat ini. Kemungkinan sebagian garis manusia Neanderthal menghilang atau mati; tetapi tampaknya sebuah garis di Timur Tengah langsung mengarah ke kita, Homo sapiens.

Di suatu tempat dalam kurun waktu jutaan tahun yang lalu, manusia membuat perubahan pada kualitas peralatan-peralatannya-yang mungkin menuju kepada perbaikan biologis pada tangan manusia selama kurun waktu tersebut, dan terutama pada pusat otak yang mengontrol tangan. Semakin banyak makhluk yang halus (secara biologis dan kultural) pada sekitar setengah juta tahun yang lalu yang dapat melakukan hal yang lebih baik dari sekadar mengkopi/ meniru alat pemotong batu kuno membawa kembali ke australopithecus. Dia membuat peralatan-peralatan yang membutuhkan manipulasi yang jauh lebih halus dalam pembuatan dan, tentu saja, dalam penggunaannya.

Perkembangan ketrampilan-ketrampilan yang sedemikian halus seperti ini dan juga penggunaan api bukanlah merupakan fenomena yang terpisah. Sebaliknya, kita harus ingat bahwa makna evolusi yang sesungguhnya (secara biologis dan kultural) adalah perluasan dari perilaku yang baru. Hal ini hanyalah karena perilaku tidak meninggalkan fosil yang memaksa kita mencarinya dalam tulang belulang atau gigi-gigi. Tulang-tulang dan gigi tidaklah menarik, bahkan bagi pemilik tulang-tulang dan gigi itu sendiri; mereka hanya berfungsi sebagai alat untuk bertindak-dan mereka sangat menarik bagi kita karena, sebagai peralatan, mereka mengungkapkan tindakan-tindakan dia, dan perubahan-perubahan pada peralatan tersebut mengungkap perubahan-perubahan pada perilaku dan ketrampilan.

Glossary

 

 

Glossaries:

Ape                              : A hairy animal like monkey, but with no tail and long arms

Ancestor                      : a relative who lived long time a go.

Anthropology              : the scientific study of human development and society or

difference society.

Anthropoid                 : a man-like, big ape having no tail

Australopithecus         : a man-like vegetarian being heavily-built

Biological                    : relating to the study of living things, such as plant and

animals.

Big Ape                        : a big hairy animal like a monkey, but with no tail and long

arms.

Childhood                    : the part of your life when you are a child.

Classic skull                 : traditional type a skull

Community                 : the people living in a particular area.

Chimpanzee                : an African animal like a large monkey.

Chopper                      : a heavy tool with a sharp edge for cutting.

Culture                                    : do as the habit

Dryiopithecus              : one other genus of Proconsul

Evidence                      : the fact that makes you believes that something is true.

Environment               : the air, land, and water where animal, human, and plant live.

Fundamental               : relating to the most important of something.

Homonid                     : a man-like ape being more sophisticated than anthropoid

Impose                        : to put something (sanction) on someone/ something

Lunge                          : sudden attack

 

Pebble                         : small round stone

Peking man                 : the primate man form Peking

Primate                       : a member of the group of animals which include monkey and

people, which have large brains, hands, and feel develop for

climbing.

Proconsual                  : name given to anthropoid which was possibly the ancestor of

a famous chimpanzee at the London Zoo in 1931

Stereoscopic                : having equally balanced characteristics

Ramapithecus             : an anthropoid which is closely among the homonids

Rudimentary               : having coarse characteristics, not perfect

Unequivocal                : straight forward and without hesitation

 

 

 

 

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